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Title: Vertical profiles of black carbon aerosols over the urban locations in South India
Authors: Safai PD
Raju MP
Maheshkumar RS
Kulkarni JR
Devara PCS 
Keywords: Air mass back trajectories;Aircraft measurement;Atmospheric stability;Black carbon aerosol;Cloud microphysics;Convective transport;Distant source;Forming region;Free troposphere;Human health;Hyderabad;Intermediate level;Local source;Long range transport;Mass loadings;Precipitation enhancement;South India;Static stability;Surface sources;Trajectory analysis;Tropical meteorology;Urban locations;Vertical distributions;Vertical profile, Atmospheric aerosols;Atmospheric movements;Fog, Precipitation (meteorology), black carbon;rain, aerosol;air mass;airborne survey;atmospheric transport;black carbon;cloud microphysics;concentration (composition);health impact;troposphere;urban atmosphere;vertical distribution;vertical profile, aerosol;air pollution;aircraft;altitude;article;atmosphere;carbon footprint;cloud;controlled study;environmental parameters;geographic distribution;India;meteorological phenomena;precipitation;priority journal;surface property;troposphere;urban area, Aerosols;Air Pollutants;Altitude;Carbon;India, Andhra Pradesh;Bangalore;Hyderabad Andhra Pradesh;India;Karnataka
Issue Date: 2012
Publisher: Science of the Total Environment
Source: Volume no: 431
Abstract: Vertical profiles of black carbon (BC) aerosol were determined from aircraft measurements under the Cloud Aerosol Interaction and Precipitation Enhancement Experiment (CAIPEEX) program conducted by the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, India during 2009 over Bangalore and Hyderabad in south India. BC mass loadings decreased approximately monotonically from 103 to 104ng/m3 at the surface to ~102ng/m3 at an altitude of about 7km; although layers at intermediate levels containing anomalously high BC loadings were frequently encountered that were attributed mainly to the convective transport from surface sources accompanied by changes in the local boundary layer and atmospheric stability. In addition, as evidenced from air mass back trajectories; long range transport from distant sources contributed to some anomalous spikes in BC concentration. The presence of BC in cloud forming regions of the free troposphere could have important implications for cloud microphysics and subsequent rainfall mechanism over this region. Apart from this, the effects on human health are equally important.
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