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Title: Impact of elevated aerosol layer on the cloud macrophysical properties prior to monsoon onset
Authors: Dipu S
Prabha TV
Pandithurai G 
Dudhia J 
Pfister G 
Rajesh K
Goswami BN
Keywords: Aerosol fluxes;Aerosol index;Aerosol layers;Aerosol loading;Aerosol optical depths;Aerosol-cloud interaction;Anthropogenic emissions;Atmospheric heating;Cloud microphysical properties;Dust emission;Hydrological cycles;Ice water content;Mixing ratios;Monsoon onset;Precipitation enhancement;Radiation balance;Radiative heating;Satellite observations;Southwest monsoon;Spatial and temporal distribution;Thar Desert;Transition phase, Atmospheric aerosols;Atmospheric thermodynamics;Dust;Experiments;Lasers;Loading;Sun, Precipitation (meteorology), rain, anthropogenic effect;atmospheric pollution;cloud microphysics;heating;monsoon;optical depth;rainfall;satellite data;solar radiation;spatiotemporal analysis, aerosol;article;atmospheric deposition;cloud;dust;physical chemistry;priority journal;sensitivity analysis;simulation;southwest monsoon;surface property;telecommunication;water content;weather;wet deposition, Thar Desert
Issue Date: 2013
Publisher: Atmospheric Environment
Source: Volume no: 70
Abstract: Atmospheric aerosols alter the radiation balance by absorption/scattering of solar radiation, and indirectly by modifying the cloud microphysical properties. Observations during the Cloud Aerosol Interaction and Precipitation Enhancement Experiment (CAIPEEX) provide a unique opportunity to investigate the aerosol-cloud interaction in a dry to wet transition phase prior to the onset of southwest monsoon. It is observed that aerosol loading increased over the central Indian region in spite of the increase in surface rainfall. This aerosol loading was observed mainly in the 2-5 km level above surface. The origin and influence of elevated aerosol layer have been investigated with the help of WRF-Chem simulations by conducting sensitivity experiments for dust emissions, modified based on the satellite observations. To enhance the dust emissions, the erodible fraction over the Thar Desert region is enhanced to an average factor of 1.7 based on TOMS aerosol index (AI) and USGS land use category, which contributed to enhanced dust emissions by a factor of 1.25 over the study region. This enhancement of dust emission from Thar Desert can result in an increased radiative heating due to elevated aerosol layers, which leads to an increase in the ice mixing ratio and ice water content in the regions of dry to wet transition. It is shown that even natural dust emissions (without changes in anthropogenic emissions) may also influence the spatial and temporal distribution of cloud and precipitation and the hydrological cycle.
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