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Title: Characteristics of rain integral parameters during tropical convective, transition, and stratiform rain at Gadanki and its application in rain retrieval
Authors: Sharma S
Konwar M 
Sarma DK 
Kalapureddy MCR
Jain AR 
Keywords: Bright band;Convective rain;Correlation coefficient;Disdrometer;Empirical relations;High frequency HF;Integral parameters;Power law equation;Rain rates;Rain retrieval;Root-mean square errors;Systematic variation;Velocity gradients;Wind profiler, Drops;Meteorological radar, Rain, convective system;correlation;empirical analysis;power law;raindrop;rainfall;updraft;wind profile, Asia;Eurasia;Gadanki;India;South Asia;Tamil Nadu
Issue Date: 2009
Publisher: Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology
American Meteorological Society
Source: Volume no: 48
Issue no: 6
Abstract: In the present study the characteristics of rain integral parameters during tropical convective (C), transition (T), and stratiform (S) types of rain are studied with the help of JossWaldvogel disdrometer (JWD), L-band, and very-high-frequency wind profilers at Gadanki (13.5N, 79.20E). The classifications of three regimes are made with the help of an L-band wind profiler. For rain rate R < 10 mm h?1 larger drops are found in S type of rain relative to C and T rain, and for R ? 10 mm h?1 larger drops are found in convective rain. Empirical relations are developed for DmR, DmZ, N*0R, ZR, and Z/DmR by fitting the power-law equations. Event to event, no systematic variation of the coefficients and exponents could be found for ZR and Z/DmR relations during the three types of rain. Overall, the C and S events are found to be number controlled, and T events are size controlled. During C type of rain, bigger mean raindrops are found during the presence of strong updrafts. During S type of rain, bigger mean raindrops are found to be associated with the higher mean thickness of the bright band and strong velocity gradient. For each of the developed empirical relations, the correlation coefficients are found in the order of T > C > S rain. During the three types of rain, correlations are found in the order of Z/DmR > ZR > DmZ > DmR. Significant improvement is observed in rain retrieval by using the Z/DmR relation relative to the conventional ZR relation. By utilizing the Z/DmR relations, the root-mean-square error was reduced by 19%46%.
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